Training branches to grow horizontally will encourage heavier cropping and less vigorous vegetative growth. This handy tree training knot is easy to tie, and can easily be untied and adjusted...
Espalier trees are often grown against a wall, traditionally brick or plaster, but wires between posts can be used to support and train the tree.
With the open vase system, the leader is removed and 3-5 major limbs are developed as the basic shape of the tree.
The modified central leader tree form is recommended for trees which have no branches when planted and to encourage branches at a specific height.
A central leader tree has one main, upright trunk with whorls of branches, usually beginning 60-90cm above ground, then again every 45-60cm up the trunk.